Augusta is located approximately 75 miles northeast of Little Rock and 75 miles northwest of West Memphis.

Located along the banks of the White River, this historic town is the county seat of Woodruff County. Due partially to its proximity to the White River, the area became a settlement for the Chickasaw Indians. The tribe built log huts along high bluffs overlooking the White River, and the area became an important trail between the Chickasaw and other nearby tribes.

In the early 1820s, a settler looking for a new life floated down the White River and was entranced by the idyllic location. Others soon followed; realizing that the town's closeness to the White was advantageous for growth. Augusta – named for a niece of the town's founder—was established in 1848 and incorporated in 1861. Although this historic burg was virtually destroyed during the Civil War, the town's residents rebuilt – determined to once again enjoy the prosperity of the lovely river town. Many of these rebuilt structures can still be seen today – such as the impressive Charles Thompson-designed Woodruff County Courthouse and the Gothic Revival-styled Augusta Presbyterian Church, both of which have been placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Augusta Memorial Park, also listed on the National Register, was used first by the Chickasaw as a burial ground and later by the original settlers as a cemetery.

Augusta is located along routes used by U.S. Generals Steele and Curtis during the second phase of the Pea Ridge Campaign and Confederate General John Sappington Marmaduke's approach to Helena. These, along with other historic Civil War routes and significant movements as the Trail of Tears and the Southwest Trail, are now part of the Arkansas Heritage Trails System.

Augusta still claims its location overlooking the scenic White River. The town is well-known as a favored spot for fisherman and boaters alike who take full advantage of the bounty offered by the picturesque river.